A community embroidery project needs someone to organise money and materials and to keep records. Even more importantly, the organiser has to maintain enthusiasm.
Some have found that it helps to begin with a small-scale project – kneelers for the chancel or a side chapel and not initially for the nave. Others arrange regular get-togethers where stitchers can compare progress and exchange tips. Often people meet in each other’s home, but why not copy the stitchers of Waltham St. Lawrence who on sunny days would sit in the churchyard after an excellent pub lunch working together on their magnificent altar rail kneeler?
But whether your project is large or small, the basics come down to money and materials.

In 2018, it probably costs around £30 to produce a kneeler. In practice, you will spend a lot at the beginning when you buy up a sufficient range of wools and less at the end when you are making use of all those half-finished hanks. But those half-used hanks and those end-of-canvas rolls will have cost you money. It is sensible therefore to assume that each kneeler will cost £35 and – with luck – at the end of your project there may be a little bit over for church funds.

What should your kneelers portray? Parish history? Parish landmarks? Local wildlife? Bible stories?
It is sensible not to be too prescriptive because anarchy may take over. At Steeple Aston, there is a splendid series of kneelers on the theme of birds. But one kneeler has defied the scheme with a delightful representation of Girl Guides cooking sausages over a camp fire.
You can try to guide your designers but recognise that you won’t always be able to control them.

Size of kneeler – Size of stitch
Your first decision. The average kneeler is 13” by 9” and 3” high but there are huge variations. Consult your congregation or copy the size of your existing kneelers.
Now choose the size of your stitches.
Canvas of 6 stitches to the inch will allow you to produce kneelers very quickly though will limit the amount of detail that you can incorporate. Probably this will confine you to geometrical designs since pictorial designs on this scale may be unacceptably crude. But geometrical designs can be superb.
Most congregations have chosen to make kneelers with 10 cross stitches to the inch. This means that the stitch is larger than the usual font in books and newspapers so that even stitchers with reading glasses should manage easily.
Other congregations have chosen kneelers with 13 tent stitches to the inch. A tent stitch is half a cross stitch so – even though there are more stitches to the inch – it is faster to work.
The ambitious – as at Hereford Cathedral – select a canvas of 18 stitches to the inch.
To see the available range of canvases, go to . You will note that all the canvases are measured in stitches to the inch.

Your first major problem.
Graph paper in the UK nowadays is printed in millimetres and is therefore useless for your designers. But we are rescued by the Americans who still scorn the metre.
Click on and select the stitch size that you want. You can only print A4 sheets so have a tiresome job sticking them together, but – heigh ho – you at least have something for your designers to work on.

There is an alternative. Go to to find the rare source of UK graph paper printed with 10 squares to the inch. NB Before placing your order, make quite sure you are getting it in inches not millimetres.

Examples for your designers

This example shows what you can do with only graph paper, pencil and rubber.

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If you have designers who prefer designing by computer, get them try This website allows one free download, so encourage them to go to Pattern and experiment.

A computer printout can be valuable if you have many stitchers all wanting to start at once. You can have a standard design which can be augmented by one-off designs – as at Sherborne Abbey. Otherwise, you may think it not worth the cost.

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Getting your stitchers started
Experienced stitchers may need little help, but those new to canvas work may want some encouragement. Give them their canvas with the edges already turned under and the vertical and horizontal centre lines already marked.

It is also surprisingly helpful to start the first few centre stitches for them. It can at first be baffling converting a design marked out in squares to the crossed threads of the warp and woof.
Provide three needles – one or two may get lost, but surely they’ll never lose three.

This example sows how a design is worked from the central stitch up to the border and how the size of the kneeler is achieved by counting the elements of the border to establish the position of the corner.

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A surprising number of your stitchers may claim that they cannot count. On this example, a waterproof laundry pen has been used to mark in part of the design. This is a very bad idea. You must educate them in counting or you will be spending all your spare time copying designs onto canvas.
On this example, only a quarter of the kneeler has been marked out. Once stitchers have managed to fill this in, even the most reluctant will have discovered that counting is easy.

The importance of borders
Counting can however be a problem. The average kneeler requires 71 stitches from the centre to the corner. Even the most careful are likely to lose count. Make things easy for them with a patterned border.

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Designing your border
Always start your border designs from the centre stitch then adapt your corners. Note that in the main design above, the centre stitch on the side border is a single stitch, allowing an equal number of threesomes above and below. Outline your border. Doodle a different border. For further ideas, you may like to buy Alphabets Motifs and Borders or – slightly less good – Traditional Samplers both by Brenda Keyes (see BOOKS).

Produce a template
Order graph paper from . Each sheet of paper has space for two kneeler templates.

Given the cost of graph paper, you may like to draw the outline of your kneeler – remembering the extra stitch horizontally and vertically – eg 13.1 x 9.1 inches. Mark in the centre lines. Draw in whatever border you have decided on. Most Print shops or Photocopying shops will be able to print you numerous A2 copies for you to issue to your designers.

Click for larger image

Click to view larger image

Final decision
You need to choose your wool size. Appleton’s Wools – used by William Morris – come in 2 ply and 4 ply (See SUPPLIERS)
With canvas of 10 stitches to the inch, you will need three strands of 2 ply. With canvas of 13 stitches to the inch, you will need 4 ply wool or two strands of 2 ply.
Using two or three strands in the needle allows you to shade your colours by the way you mix strands of dark, medium and light colours in the needle. Always use an alternating mix of two or three shades in plain backgrounds – it makes for a much livelier effect.
4 ply wool gives you clear contrasts but looks rather dead across large areas.

The sides of the kneeler are often worked in a textured stitch in a plain colour. The advantage is that it is much quicker than the tent stitch or cross stitch you have used on the top of the kneeler. Some speed up the kneeler-making process dramatically by using a plain fabric on the sides – as at St. Edmundsbury Cathedral, Suffolk.
An excellent book on textured stitch varieties is The New World of Needlepoint by Lisbeth Perrone (see BOOKS). At St. Mary the Virgin, Stanwell, near London, each stitcher chose a textured stitch from the book and that stitch became their signature on the kneelers that they made.